5 – PRONOUNS

Personal Subject Pronouns

1st

an-, 1 one (impersonal pronoun), you, they, people. 2 we (inclusive of the persons addressed).

ava, 1 I (not inclusive of the person[s] addressed). 2 we (exclusive of the persons addressed). This unbound form is used before equational verbs (vayole/yoyole).

va-, pronoun prefix for first person singular or plural (see ava), often shortened to vwhen prefixed to a polysyllabic verb beginning with a vowel.

2nd

abu, you (singular & plural). This unbound form is used before equational verbs (vayole/yoyole).

bu-, pronoun prefix for second person singular or plural (see abu) prefixed to a verb.

3rd

ayo, 1 he, she it. 2 they. This unbound form is used before equational verbs (vayole/yoyole).

yo-, pronoun prefix for third person singular or plural (see ayo) prefixed to a verb beginning with a consonant and often lengthened to yoywhen prefixed to a polysyllabic verb beginning with a vowel other than “a”.

 Direct Object Pronouns

Direct objects are appended directly to the transitive verb.

an, 1 one (impersonal pronoun), you, them, people. 2 us (inclusive of the persons addressed).

va, 1 me. 2 us (exclusive of the persons addressed).

bu, you (singular & plural).

yo, 1 him, her, it. 2 them.

Indirect Object Pronouns

Indirect object pronouns appear before the verb, and between mas and the main stem of causative verbs.

ani, 1 to one (impersonal pronoun), to you, to them, to people. 2 to us (inclusive of the persons addressed).

avi, 1 to me. 2 to us (exclusive of the persons addressed).

abui, to you (singular & plural).

ayoi, 1 to him, to her, to it. 2 to them.

Possessive Pronouns

anat, 1 one’s own (impersonal pronoun), yours, theirs, people’s. 2 ours (inclusive of the persons addressed).

avat, 1 mine. 2 ours (exclusive of the persons addressed).

abut, yours (singular & plural).

ayot, 1 his [own], hers, its [own]. 2 theirs.

Demonstrative Pronouns

nun, 1 that [one]. 2 those [ones].

As adjectives of color cannot stand alone as nouns, note the use of the demonstrative pronoun nun:

Svai vadidi mirti nun.

I’ll take the red (one), please.

Svai vadidi mirta means, “I’ll take the color red”, which is clearly not meant. (As mirta is also the word for “inflammation”, and the verb “take” here is rendered by didi, “to buy”, such a sentence becomes nonsensical.)

 nunien, 1 this [one]. 2 these [ones].

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