7 – NEGATION

Rah is the answer for direct negative answers (equivalent  to “no”). When used before nouns, the noun it governs is put into the genitive case:

Ni buvas pevadi jouna e Amerikia? Rah.

Do you like American movies? No.

Rah syeniara.

No running.

Rah bepeqa.

No answer.

Rah is also the word that puts verbs into the negative (equivalent to “not”):

Rah vavas pevadi jouna e Amerikia.

I do not like American movies.

Sometimes English uses “no” to mean “not any”:

Rah bepeqda.

Give no answer. [Not answer.]

Rah is also used for questions asked in the negative, when the answer is a definite “no”:

Ni buvas pevadi jouna e Francia? Rah.

Don’t you like French movies? No.

Cer rah is translated by “not yet”, but it is used much more than in English, where “not” usually suffices:

Ni bes buaibanda? Cer rah.

Have you eaten yet? [Have you already eaten?] No[, not yet].

Cer rah yoqabda buhai aqucon.

He has not gone to the office [yet].

Aisya rah is translated by “never” or “not ever” (often with ha or puno for emphasis), and it is used more than in English, where “never” may suffice:

Aisya rah vavas oher Francia.

I have never been to France.

Aisya rah yoqaindi jouna e Dania puno.

He has never seen a Danish movie.

[Ha] aisya rah yoyer ya qaindibu stayu.

He does not ever want to see you again. [He never wants to see you again.]

Syau rah is translated by “no longer”, “no more”, “not any longer” or “not any more”, and it is used more than in English, where “not” may suffice:

Syau rah yovas peuda oher Francia.

He no longer lives in France.

Syau rah vaqabda buhai jounabon labeutu.

I no longer go to the cinema. [I don’t go to the cinema any more.]

Taneraic, like English, resists double negatives, so expressions with “none”, “no one/nobody” (= not anyone), “nothing” (= not anything), etc., are rendered thus:

Yoyemou yole rah nu tou andenda.

He would not allow anyone in. [Lit., He allowed that no one entered.]

Iher rah nu tou yobahudi bahut.

He asked no one any questions. [Lit., To no one he asked any questions.]

As Taneraic does not have a past participle form, paraphrases must be used:

Rah nu tou mubousda.

There is nobody interested. [Lit., nobody is interested.]

 

Leave a Reply