8 – IMPERATIVE

The imperative is a mood, not a tense. There are two types of imperative: the lesser imperative and the imperative proper.

LESSER IMPERATIVE

The lesser imperative is formed with mieu and retains verb stems:

Mieu savada gasta darbounjout.

Let us speak to the officers.

Mieu bepeqdi bahut.

Let us answer the question.

When “let” is used with other pronouns and means “allow”, the imperative with emou is used:

U emou yole yobepeqdi bahut.

Let him answer the question.

IMPERATIVE

The imperative is formed with u, and the verbal stem is dropped:

U sava gasta darbounjout!

Speak to the officers.

U bepeq bahut!

Answer the question.

U lipalesubiaris!

Stop, thief! [literally, Thief!]

Taneraic always uses the exclamation mark when using imperative form. U may be dropped, but the imperative sounds more brusque, urgent or less polite if one does this. It is necessarily dropped after words in the instrument case (usually, requests, greetings, etc.), and the verbal stem may be retained:

Viqú garuda!

Please go home!

The negative is formed by u rah:

U rah sava gasta darbounjout!

Don’t speak to the officers.

U rah bepeq bahut!

Don’t answer the question.

U rah! by itself is equivalent to the English command, “Stop!” Never is rendered by u aisya rah:

U aisya rah sava gasta darbounjout!

Never speak to the officers.

U aisya rah bepeq bahut!

Never answer the question.

Predicative adjectives use su:

U su xayari!

Be good!

U rah su juni qebini!

Don’t be so stupid!

Compare this with the expletive

U xayar!

Good!

U qebin!

Stupid!

(The u here is the informal form of ou.) U is also used by criers, hawkers, etc.:

«U busuq be! U busuq be

“Lampshades! Lampshades!” [Mayakovsky]

Direct object pronouns appear in their free-standing form after the imperative:

Ayoi u jicya ayo!

Give it to him!

U is dropped in rapid conversation or when being informal:

Sava gasta darbounjout!

Speak to the officers!

Bepeq bahut!

Answer the question!

Verbal endings may be kept with derivatives:

U aisebovatta gan!

Go in! [literally, enter!]

U imabepeqatta!

Reply!

Abu appears before the imperative:

Abu u rah jaber!

Dont you dare!

THE EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE

“Ha” precedes the word emphasised (with or without an exclamation mark), whereas English often uses italics:

Yosavada gasta ha darbounjout!

He spoke to the officers.

Rah abu ha bepeqdi bahut!

You didn’t answer the question!

If “ha” needs to be interpolated between the subject pronoun and the subject verb (as in the case above), the pronoun form used is the extended or free-standing form. If the pronoun is emphasised, “ha” may still be used, or use “ai yes su” or use the free-standing form in combination with the joined form:

Rah ha bubepeqdi bahut!

You didn’t answer the question! OR

Rah bubepeqdi bahut ai yes su!

You [yourself] didn’t answer the question! OR

Rah abu bubepeqdi bahut!

You didn’t answer the question!

 

Leave a Reply