The words dealt with in the following list present common problems of translation not conveniently explained elsewhere.


1 = counting back from the present aqe:

Aqe sula [aqe marnu iyohata] yopamevanda.

He left a moment ago [a month ago].

Aqe pou luna yovas pu peuda oher Francia.

He lived in France ten years ago.

Additional note. Aqe is placed before the expression of time in question, and is usually placed at the beginning of the sentence.

2. = since ago haunta:

Rah yoyaibandi nuri regia haunta marnu auanaiveya.

He hasn’t eaten any meat since a week ago.

a little while ago, not long ago (within the hour), aqe sula

a little while ago, not long ago (recently), aqe ce

a long time ago, aqe piyo

some time ago, aqe nesoucya go


1. = also of same kind e/je:

peinos e rapan, law and order

butou je gotou, men and women

aleuhat e tarumat, salt and pepper

oumas e niapesya, knife and fork

ava e abu, you and I (lit., I and you)

Marnu isdiá sabri, ibei e cahi.

A big, fat and round fish.

Nuni megauqei esouqira yole sescyudi teutovun e yole

anresoda e majuaqqa.

The quality peculiar to mankind (which is) called justice.

Additional note. The particle e (je is an optional pluraliser) links words — nouns or adjectives — that belong together in a list or series, or relative clauses where the latter adds to the sense of the preceding adjectival phrase. (The word preceding e is not set off with a comma.) The order may be reversed without loss of meaning, although habit may determine order. Generally, derived nouns appear as the second element (e.g., oumas e niapesya).

2. = also of different kind busai:

Viqú bouaindi armin busai lourda e ni tuhuda.

Please try on the shirt and see if it fits.


Vaqabda pilaibboni evon didi nunieni armin.

I went to the shop and bought this shirt.


Vaqabda pileibboni busai bouaindi nuni armin evon

didiyo zau qabda jounaboni.

I went to the shop and tried on the shirt and bought it

and then went to the cinema.

Additional note. The particle busai links conjunctive phrases in the first instance; evon (and then), in the first or second, and zau (and then), in the third or following.

3. = in the company of gasta:

ava gasta abu, you and I (lit., I with you)

Mary gasta Yves, Mary and Yves

Simpson gasta ayoi ledounsyen, Simpson and his donkey

Additional note. The particle gasta, properly a preposition, links people — and less usually, people and animals, or even inanimate objects — recognised as a couple or unit.

4. = and yet aqouga:

Yolipalesubdi avi nar; aqouga, ayo vayole xayaris.

He stole my money and yet he’s a nice person.

5. = with ingredientso:

sqoyot didono, bread and butter (lit., bread with butter)

bacat giricyo, bacon and eggs (lit., eggs with bacon)

Additional note. The prepositional case –o is used in cases where one item is considered an ingredient or added extra to the main item.


6. = therefore ji:

Gabehiaris muhausda; ji, rah gabehda.

The match is damp and (therefore) won’t light.

7. = one and the same dayole:

Avi esnula dayole urabis.

My friend and neighbor (i.e., same person)

8. = plus aspeu(gau):

Yabnu aspeu yabnu asendi meinu.  OR

Yabnu aspeuga yabnú asendi meinu.

Two and two make four.

9. = difference dus qudou:

Syasyalat vas, dus qudou syasyalat vas.

There are wines and there are wines.

10. = between … and ya … ya:

ya abu ya ava, between you and me

11. = comparative of gradation pevi pevu:

xayari pevi pevu, better and better

zepiri pevi pevu, thicker and thicker

airecocyi pevi pevu, more and more jaded

12. = repeatedly usyi usyu:

Yolesqasyada usyi usyu.

He knocked and knocked.

13. = over space or time haunta . . . jame:

Yoneyanatti ayoi qabron haunta Meyla jame.

He drove for miles and miles.

Yolaguanatti biran haunta vonja jame.

He listened to music for hours and hours.

14. = introductory link (eher):

Qab(da eher) sqoudi aret!

Go (and) open the door!

U vir(da eher) uzeutta!

Wait and see!

U uma pesqou eher qessoda!

Lie down and relax!

Additional notes. No link is needed between common verbs, where the first verb, often of motion, is introducing the second; alternatively, eher (in order to/that) may be used where the idea of purpose is present.

(a) No conjunction is used in numbers:

teqou yanpou, a hundred and sixty

meinu cannu meluna, four and three quarters

(b) The expression “and/or” is rendered by i . . . i yos:

heniaris i zivosiaris i yos, pen and/or pencil

(c) The expression “without . . . and” is rendered by uzeus . . . i:

Pu yomouda gan uzeus laqut i abit.

He lived there without electricity and gas.

(d) The expression “now and then” is rendered by (ai) qisi qiyou:

Valaguandi yaun srova ai qisi qiyou.

I heard bird sounds now and then.



When another means “a different”, use nuri veqi. When another means “a further”, use nuri yascyi:

Nunieni heniaris rah qabda; viqú, avi jicyadi nuri veqi nun.

This pen doesn’t work. Please give me another [one].

Ni svai buaibandi nuri yascyi pula beden?

Would you like another apple?


  1. (a) = physically able to das ebica eher (discrete):

Rah vadas ebica eher atasyudiyo.

I cannot endure it.

Yodas ebica eher zancyida lesegu mamega zancyia.

He can walk with the aid of a stick.

Yodas ebica eher mas nuri habuega.

He was able to make some progress.

Vadas ebica eher laguandi yaun srova.

I can hear bird sounds.

(b) The discrete das ebica eher is preferred for compound verbs:

Budas ebica eher das bouca boubda.

You can keep out of the way.


2. = physically able to -esta- (as part of verb):

Rah vayatasyuestadiyo.

I cannot endure it.

Yozancyiestada lesegu mamega zancyia.

He can walk with the aid of a stick.

Valaguanestadi yaun srova.

I can hear bird sounds.

3. = knowing how to do something syi[da eher] (governs an infinitive):

Rah vasyi[da eher] asibda.

I cannot read.

Vasyi[da eher] yevanda.

I can swim.

4. = be free to das emou aspireuda e:

Rah budas emou aspireuda e pemicadi avi saqir sescyu ascyiyo avi.

You can’t borrow my things without asking.

Vadas emou aspireuda e iscyoviarda peta yerda gan.

I can smoke if I want [to].

5. = may annai:

Annai buasibdi aijaganat mousyacyova.

You can read the diary entry.

Annai buaibandi nuri yascyi pula beden.

You can have another apple.

6. = maybe vegos:

Vegos pasyanocyiar xasda e meseristi abeja.

Lying can have serious consequences.

7. = have the opportunity to abrabda oher:

U lesega ava peta buabrabda!

Help me if you can.

8. = be able to bring oneself to mugelenda eher:

Nu ge bumugelenda eher aibandi ziyibat?

How can you [bring yourself to] eat snake?

Additional note. The infix -esta- cannot be used with the verbs das, mas or vas standing alone; in such cases, use das ebica eher or one of the locutions appropriate for sense.

Vabrabda oher vas oher Parija uzauanaiveto.

I can be in Paris next week.


  1. physically able (in the past in English) das ebica eher (discrete):

Yodas ebica eher zancyida lesegu mamega zancyia.

He could walk with the aid of a stick.

Yodas ebica eher mas nuri habuega.

He could [was able to] make some progress.

2. = having known how to do something syi[da eher] (governs an infinitive):

Rah vasyi[da eher] asibda.

I couldn’t [= didn’t know how to] read.

Vasyi[da eher] yevanda.

I could [= knew how to] swim.

3. As the second part of an if … then drill (protasis-apodosis zero marker):

Peta buyorgiardi mimetar aipas, pepeta buaisyandiva e ayo.

If you watched the programme, [then] you could tell me.

4. = have the opportunity to abrabda oher:

Peta abrabda, pepeta uza vaboubda.

I would go if I could.

5. = be willing tunai:

Tunai rah vadas yascyi beiji buhai bebes oubet aher Freud.

I couldn’t get another pet after Freud died.

6. = would like svai:

Svai rah yoyasbandi ayoti asyila.

He couldn’t take his own advice.


  1. = acquire, receive or obtain jescyubdi:

Vajescyubdi ayoi beqi itosya.

I got all his furniture.

2. = acquire jesdi:

Vajesdi habiri auzat.

I got the wrong address.

3. = become, followed by an adjective sediada:

Yosediada mansenuscyi.

He got ill.

4. = become (reciprocity) ya:

Ya yoqancuda.

They got married.

5. = become (reflexivity) uma:

Uma vagejonda arí.

I easily get upset.

6. = become, followed by the past tense in English (passive) an-:


He got fired.

Additional Note. Get is used in English far more than in Taneraic. When get is used instead of a verb that is inferred, use that verb in Taneraic:

Vadidi yabnu ziya eher jouna.

I got [= bought] two cinema tickets.

Vajescyubdi zu ai naiqasanatten.

I got [= obtained] a degree in economics.



  1. (a) = in what way or the same way as, like ge (nu ge in questions):

Rah vasyida e ge asbandiyo.

I did not know how I would take it.

Nu ge buasbandiyo?

How did you take it?

1. (b) = to what extent ge:

Yomas uma bouzida e ge heibreqada aher jescyubdi zu ai naiqasanatten.

He realised how difficult it was to get a degree in economics.

2. = what a! (exclamation) [u] gai, [u] ge, [u] gu:

Gai syugab!

How wonderful!

Ge yogada nuyole tou meterda!

How soon we forget!

[Work in progress]

[Work in progress]


  1. = amount nu remi:

Nu remi yole yoyasbanda?

How much did he receive?

Nu remi syusata yoraxida? OR

Yoraxidi nu remi syusata?

How many letters did he write?


1. = appropriate time cyai (modal):

Cyai vagaruda gonien.

I must go [home] now.

2. (a) = without a doubt pecyuralatu (disjunctive):

Pecyuralatu, vabahuda e X iher Y.

I must ask Y about X.

(b) (exhortative):

Ha pecyuralatu, busebouda!

You must come!

3. = it would seem peyotalati (junctive):

Yoyasenda peyotalati e darnin.

They must be the police.

4. = be necessary vas umá (expressing an order):

Vas umá yole busebouda.

You must come.

5. = -usta (compulsion):

Rah vasyida e ga sejirustada.

I don’t know where to begin. [literally, must begin]


  1. = single cyari:

    Nun vayole cyari veqi usyat.

    That was the only other time.

2. = solitary marcyari:

Nuni marcyari Henry Miller.

The one and only Henry Miller.

3. = one and only pemarati (junctive):

Avi pemarati esnula yole hevaristada.

My only trusted friend.

4. (a) = purely pecyarati (junctive):

Eher pecyarati jilisi hangirat.

For women’s use only.

4. (b) = alone pecyaratu (disjunctive):

Pecyaratu, emeqar pebenda.

Only the walls remained.

5. = one thing that is involved or happens in a particular situation vaqe (= pecyarati/pecyaratu):

Eher darpaurani moudiva vaqe. OR

Eher pecyarati darpaurani moudiva. OR

Pecyaratu, eher darpaurani moudiva.

For teaching purposes only.

Yoyasibiardi hasyan vaqe.

He reads only poetry.

Abu vaqe syidi butat.

Only you know the truth.

6. = (a) just (to the exclusion of everything else) rah nu [saqir] pe (= vaqe):

Yoyasibiardi rah nu (saqir) pe yoyexa piyo jame.

He only reads novels.

6. = (b) just (without anything else) uzeus veqa:

Vayer hamodi nuri sarat uzeus veqa, viqú.

I only want coffee, please.

6. (c) = just now/then na:

Mepadesqesato, na valouzardi nunieni armin, busai yomanendada stayi gonien.

only washed this shirt this morning and now it’s dirty again.

6. (d) = just now na soucya (emphatic):

Na soucya vasebouda aqe marnu vonjata.

I arrived only an hour ago.

6. (e) = it is just that cye cyar:

Vayer sediadi dareyan, cye cyar rah das aibovi ujion gen.

I want to be an actor, only I’m not good enough.

7. = merely soucya (emphatic):

Ayo vayole tovun soucya.

He’s only a child.

8. = except pe:

Lesqidi yesi aive, pe aqe marnu auanaiveya.

It fell on the same day, only a week earlier.


  1. (a) = duty (must/obligated) otai:

Otai buasbandi ayoi asyila.

You should take his advice.

Otai yosyida.

He should know.

1. (b) = expected to cyurai:

Cyurai yosyida.

He should know.

1. (c) = had better, ought to (advisable/desirable) cyurai/otai:

Cyurai/Otai yomas abui yenda.

He should have told you.

2. = warrant (advisable) asyilastada:

Asyilastada yole bujapavostadi dartiran.

You should see the doctor.

Additional Note. In formal English, should is used for the 1st person, where would is otherwise used; Taneraic makes no such distinction. (See would)


  1. = very juni:

Ayoi asyila xayaristada juni.

His advice is so good.

2. = therefore ji:

Gabehiaris muhausda; ji, rah gabehda.

The match is damp, so it won’t light.

3. = well sila:

Sila, otai bumas ayoi yendiyo.

So, you should tell him.


  1. = so very juni:

Ayo vayole juni xayaristi esnula.

He is such a good friend.

Yodas juni xayaristi asyila.

He has such good advice.

Yonubdi juni rosí daya [jame].

He has such rare books.


1. (a) = road qab:

Ayoi esnula liqavatti qab ai naqelaqo.

His friend lost his way in the snow.

1. (b) = road remou[qa]:

Nunien asendi remouqa uma aspireuteni.

This is the way to freedom.

1. (c) = manner, means remou:

Emou, Vayer raida removu avi.

Let me do it my way.

Avi yoqainda removu sirosyi.

He looked at me in a strange way.

Ai nu remou?

In what way?

2. (a) = how nu ge:

Nu ge anmangadi ledoun removu bepiri? 

What is the proper way to dismount from a horse?

2. (b) = manner of doing things ejó:

Vaqab mas palirdibu ejó asmeterasti. 

I’m going to teach you a lesson you won’t forget [literally, in an unforgettable way].



  1. = exclamation ge:

Ge! Ni yoliqavatti qab ai naqelaqo?

What! He lost his way in the snow?

2. = interrogative nu [vayole nun yole]:

Nu vayole nun yole sasi dareyan raida gonien?

What is the actor doing now?

Additional Notes: Sometimes nu is used in fixed expressions, such as «Nu vonjada?» “What time is it?”.

[Work in progress]


  1. = would like svai:

Svai vaibesdi lesqovaten cer nasuten.

I would choose happiness over wealth.

Svai yojapoudi Veneci cecer yur oubeda.

He would have liked to see Venice before he died.

Svai rah vaibandi ziyibat.

I wouldn’t eat snake.

2. = would be willing/would have been willing tunai:

Tunai valesegadibu.

I would have helped you.

3. “Would” in apodosis (zero marker = “will”):

Vaboubda peta das abrab gan [= peta vadas abrab, pepeta vaboubda gan].

I would go if I could [= If I was able, (then) I would go].



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